There’s No Consistent Measuring System For Space, And It’s Hurting Astronomy

There’s No Consistent Measuring System For Space, And It’s Hurting Astronomy

One physicist has a proposal for fixing this.

18 APR 2018

There’s something sorely lacking in the scientific fields of astronomy and astrophysics. As it turns out, we’re still lacking logical consistency in how we measure what goes on in space.

Writing for the journal Astronomy & Geophysics, retired physics professor Keith Atkin of the University of Sheffield says that our current global “system” – if one can even call it that – is an absolute omnishambles (paraphrasing).

“Many of the units used by practising astronomers constitute an unfortunate confusion of imperial, old CGS (centimetre-gram-second), SI, together with a number of entirely redundant units peculiar to astronomy,” he writes.

If you follow space news at all, you’ll probably be familiar with the measurement mayhem.

Most of the world tends to use SI (the International System of Units) or metric units for day-to-day life – based on litres, grams, metres, and Celsius or Kelvin.

However, the US is still using Imperial measurements, such as ounces, fluid ounces, feet and miles, and Fahrenheit.

“The US,” Atkin notes, “represents about 4 percent of the population of the Earth.”

The UK is also problematic – the country is undergoing a long, slow conversion to metric, which means that while schools teach the metric system, the imperial system is still well in practical use.

“Students who have learned their physics using SI units and start to take an interest in astronomy will, on joining an astronomical society, commonly find people talking about “six-inch” telescopes or hear enthusiastic descriptions of spacecraft travelling at “thousands of miles per hour’,” says Atkin.

“Professional astronomers are not immune to this muddle as the astronomical unit (au), the light-year (ly), and the parsec (pc) are widely regarded as respectable and useful.

“In actuality, these units are redundant and serve no useful purpose. My bête noire is the megaparsec – a clumsy and ugly fusion of an SI prefix and a non-SI unit.”

This means there’s mental effort involved in trying to think and conduct experiments in another system, or learning to convert on the fly – effort that could be better spend on other pursuits.

But it can cause other problems, too – for every new calculation introduced to a work, there’s another opportunity for an error to be made, no matter how simple the calculation might be.

And if equipment is involved, that can be costly.

This was spectacularly demonstrated in 1999, when NASA lost a $125 million Mars orbiter partially due to a conversion mishap, using Imperial measurements when the Lockheed engineering team who built the spacecraft had used SI.

Atkin proposes that we make a move to basing all astronomical distance measurements on the metre, using the SI prefix system, and speed measurements as kilometres per second.

Mass could also be expressed in kilograms instead of using the mass of the Sun, also known as Solar masses or M⊙, as a baseline.

This would be easy to standardise. The megametre (106 metres) could be used for planetary scales, the gigametre (109 metres) and the terametre (1012 metres) within the Solar System, the petametre (1015 metres) and exametre (1018 metres) for inside the Milky Way, and the zettametre (1021 metres) and yottametre (1024 metres) for the farthest distances.

Likewise, the Sun’s weight could be expressed, albeit using a currently unofficial prefix, as 1.98 besagrams – that’s 1033 grams.

As with all changes of this nature, it may be difficult to implement – and certainly very time consuming.

“As a colleague recently observed: ‘Andromeda will be a good deal closer to the Solar System than it is now, before we read of its distance in zettametres’,” Atkin writes.

“However, even if only some of these changes can be made, this will surely benefit understanding and communication within astronomical circles and between astronomy and related sciences.”

The paper has been published in Astronomy & Geophysics.

Monaco symbolize fine art of hospitality

With truly exceptional luxury hotels by the sea in french riviera, the Principality of Monaco, continues to symbolize fine art of hospitality and irresistible charm, offering, better than ever experiences for every guest!


With the most iconic hotels, the seaside destination is a constant favourite amongst the travellers from the world. From Palatial Hotels like Hotel de Paris, Hotel Hermitage and Metropole Hotel to Luxe Hotels including Monte-Carlo Beach Hotel, Fairmont Monte Carlo, Hotel Port Palace, Monte Carlo Bay Hotel and Resort, Le Meridien Beach Plaza, Columbus Monte-Carlo and Novotel Monte Carlo; offer hospitality that is sure to leave you mesmerized with effortless opulence and comfort.

To experience a majestic holiday for cherishing memories, Hotel de Paris has redesigned and laid a benchmark for Diamond Suites, with exceptional elegance each having wide-eyed and unparalleled views of the beautiful Mediterranean Sea. These spacious Diamond suites, with modern touch, marble and brass furnishings, seamlessly, add to the classic French decors. Hotel de Paris continues to pamper your senses with timeless architecture, such that, you end up falling in love with the Seaside luxury even more.

A symbol of luxury and charm, the Suite Carré d’Or at the Hotel Metropole Monte-Carlo, offers a very unique experience. Located on the top floor, the exceptional apartment composes a spacious living room, large bedroom, walk-in wardrobe and voluminous marble and gold bathroom. An amazing private terrace offers unrivaled views of the Casino de Monte-Carlo, its gardens and the Mediterrane n Sea.

Monaco is the epitome of pure relaxation with a unique selection of suites with hi-end Jacuzzis and balmy wellness mantras. Whether it’s an intimate family get-together or a romantic holiday with your partner, the Double Sunshine Suite at the Monte Carlo Beach Hotel welcomes you from March to October. The quite yet tranquil, Sun Lounge offers you a luxurious haven to sunbathe in complete serenity. For a deep relaxation experience, the Thermes Marins Monte-Carlo awaits your stay in Hotel Hermitage. Ease yourself in the heated seawater pools with hammam and sauna or just opt for the special beauty corner “The Salon bleu”.

Hotels in Monaco are blessed with luxurious settings beyond what you can imagine! With seven storeys built on the sea, the Fairmont Monte-Carlo Hotel is designed with the ethos of a luxury Mediterranean Cruise, its interior design delivers plenty of natural light and ocean views at every corner. A stay here is so unique that you might never find a reason enough to venture out! Ideally located in the centre of the Principality is the Novotel Monte-Carlo, offering contemporary setting, combining modernity, simplicity, comfort and well-being. With approximately 200 rooms Novotel Monte-Carlo is most suited for shimmering views of the Harbour and the famous Rock of Monaco. Take a step away from the casinos and shopping galleries and step into Hotel Port Palace. What can be better way to immerse yourself into the luxurious stay at “Grand Corner Suite”, 5 grand suites perfectly designed for a family getaway. You can also choose to revel at Hotel Le Meridien Beach Plaza, featuring the suites with contemporary designs and spectacular views from the private balcony are ideal for taking a feel of sun downers or simply enjoying a moment of magic. Equally exceptional are the Riviera suites of the Columbus Monte-Carlo.

Let yourself indulge in the cosy vibe and luminous queen size beds for an instant feel of the French Riviera, beyond the seas.

Monaco is a country with breathtaking views, luxurious hotels, glamorous lifestyle and a plethora of indulgent activities to make sure your holiday experience is every bit as memorable as you’ve imagined.


While in Monaco…experience the ongoing top events, popular in Monte Carlo and far beyond its frontiers!

Spring Arts Festival

The distinct taste for the diversity of artistic expression, symphonic music, recitals, opera, film projection, theater, poetry, dance performances, with the greatest artists.The event contributes to making the Principality a place of choice in springtime, for all those that arts and music bring together.

(16th March to 29th April 2018)

Monte-Carlo Rolex Masters

11 courts, 8 days of play, 100,000 spectators and 56 champions who battle it out on Monegasque soil

(14th April to 22nd April 2018)


About Monaco 
Welcome to Monaco. A Riviera Gem. An international cultural center for ballet, opera, music, theatre and exhibitions. A place where great minds meet for business at the Grimaldi Forum Monaco. Experience heart-stopping sports action at Monaco’s F1 Grand Prix and Tennis Masters and at the tables of the Casino de Monte-Carlo… or retreat to our luxurious spas (Les Thermes Marin, ESPA, Les Cinq Mondes, Willow Stream). World-class hotels (including the Hotel de Paris, Hotel Metropole Monte-Carlo, Fairmont Monte Carlo, Monte-Carlo Bay Hotel, Le Meridien Beach Plaza, Monte-Carlo Beach Hotel, Port Palace Monaco and the Hotel Hermitage) host the world’s most discerning guests.

Press Contact:
Ruma Gupta | Public Relations Manager
Monaco Government Tourist Authority | TRAC Representations India Pvt. Ltd. |+91 11 23730136 |


To download highres image just click on image


T-Series Stageworks ‘CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE’


INVITE: Att. the Prestigious Launch of upcoming venture of T-Series Stageworks ‘CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE’ Guests: Tulsi Kumar, Khushali Kumar, Mrs Sudesh Kumari, M K Raina, Sanjay Vidyarthi, Nayanika Chatterjee, Gaurav Ghawri & more other prominent personalities At 1:30 Pm on 20th April 2018 (Friday) @ A- Block Administrative building, Campus 1, Galgotias College of Engineering & Technology, Knowledge Park-2, Greater Noida

T-Series Stageworks cordially invites you to attend the Launch & to share with you the uniqueness of their upcoming venture. 


(Having made the journey of many young aspirants at T-Series StageWorks from Students to Stars, now its time for search of finding raw talent to grass root level and that is how after successfully unflagging its first Centre of Excellence in MMU, Ambala, T-Series StageWorks launching its second Centre of Excellence in Galgotias University, Greater Noida.)

To be addressed by:

  • Tulsi Kumar (renowned Singer/Director T-Series StageWorks)
  • Khushali Kumar (Eminent Fashion Designer, Model turned actress)
  • Mrs. Sudesh Kumari (Managing Director T-Series)
  • M K Raina (popular Theatre professional & Bollywood actor)
  • Sanjay Vidyarthi (Music Director)
  • Nayanika Chatterjee (Super Model)
  • Gaurav Ghawri (Winner of TV Dance Reality Show)

And more other prominent personalities!

Time: 1:30 pm

Date: 20th April 2018 (Friday)

Venue: A- Block Administrative building, Campus 1, Galgotias College of Engineering & Technology, Knowledge Park-2, Greater Noida

“27th Shukla Day Coin Fair 2018”

www.mintageworld.comWorld’s 1st Online museum for Ancient & Current Coins, Stamps & Currency Notes participates in the “27th Shukla Day Coin Fair 2018” at The Expo Center, World Trade Center from 20th to 22nd April 2018 with more than 500 new & interesting offerings
  • Visitors, Collectors & Hobbyists will get detailed information and a virtual access to more than 81,500 Coins, 2300 Currency Notes & 5000 stamps from Worldwide at the site
  • Tailor made individual albums of Currency Notes from  16 different countries, An exclusive album of a collection of Currency notes from 25 different countries of Asia & A  detailed collection of 100 notes from 31 different countries in the world will also be available at nominal rates at the fair
  • Various historical rare Coins ranging from Ancient, Medieval, Colonial India and of ancient Roman Empire in Individual Coin Cards with the original coin, its make, ruler, denomination weight & a brief history will also be available for sale at an affordable cost
  • A wide range of accessories for Coins (Albums, Capsules, Holders, Sheets, Binders), Currency Notes ( Album, Box, Sleeves, Pockets) & Stamps (Stockbooks ,Ring Binders, Protective stock sheets) and many more of various sizes & combinations can be bought  at the fair by the collectors to preserve & restore their valuable collections
  • is the first Online Coins, Currency notes & Stamps museum with free access by registration and has currently more than 1,32,000 members & 4,13,504 facebook followers globally & all the above mentioned products can be ordered Online from the site as per your convenience
Mumbai,April 19th ,2018: Launched with an objective to impart and share knowledge and create interest for general public, students, scholars, collectors, hobbyists, buyers, sellers & investors. It’s being initiated with a purpose of reintroducing the joy and fun of coins, currency notes & stamps collection to the current millennial & youth in India & globally. is a wonderful way to educate contemporary India and the world about theirrich historical heritage, tradition & culture. This online museum imparts rare information such as detailed catalogue of global stamps, coins and currency notes all under one roof. Fascinating & interesting history section on coin issuing authorities, dynasties and rulers is one of the major highlight of this site.
The sole vision behind this initiative is to provide a single point of access to seek and share information and knowledge of these three fields along with its global updates. It brings together experts and researchers to share their experience with the lovers of these rare collectibles. This initiative will help reemphasize the glorious history, arts and cultural legacy of India and put our country on the global map of collectors.
What makes Mintage World credible is that it has a strong team of in-house researchers, experts & curators with decades of experience in this sector. Every bit of information on it is thoroughly cross verified with the best reference materials & technology available.  Mintage World has a strong team and the implementation of the latest technology solutions for verifying and collating authentic information for this one-of-its-kind digital platform.
Every coin in this online museum is uploaded with well curated important aspect like mintmarks, inscription details, emperor, weight, metal, denomination, date of issue etc. Similarly you would also find crucial insights of stamps like the issue date, type of stamp, perforation, value etc. Information about notes is updated with signatory details, motif description, denomination, date of issue, type of note etc. Apart from that, the news section that keeps you updated with the most recent happenings, latest releases and topical news from worldwide along with the respective images in all the 3 sectors. A Unique event calendar gives you prior notifications about the various events, auctions, seminars and forums held worldwide in this sector.
Collectors & Hobbyists can also get their prestigious collections photographed by us in a high definition studio setup, which they in turn can upload in their profile in a “ My Collection” section for their peers to watch and compare. One can also order Birthday Notes & Lucky Notes for themselves as well as for gifting. Insightful books on Bank Notes & Coins from eminent experts can also be ordered from online

ADR: Crime against women


Analysis of MPs/MLAs with Declared Cases Related to Crimes against Women


Dear friends,

Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR) and National Election Watch have analyzed4845 out of 4896 election affidavits of current MPs and MLAs. It includes 768 out of 776 affidavits of MPs and 4077 out of 4120 MLAs from all the states of India.

For complete report with details of IPC sections related to crimes against women declared by sitting Rajya Sabha, Lok Sabha MPs and Members of Legislative Assemblies, please refer to: 

Summary and Highlights

  • Out of 1580(33%) MPs/ MLAs analysed with declared criminal cases, 48 have declared cases related to crimes against women.

  • Among these 48 MPs/MLAs with declared cases related to Crimes s against women, 45 are MLAs and 3 are MPs.

  • 327 candidates analysed who had declared cases related to crimes against women, were given tickets by recognized political parties.

  • 118 independent candidates analysed with declared cases related to crimes against women had contested for Lok/Rajya and state assembles’ elections in last 5 years.

  • Among these candidates, 40 candidates were given tickets by parties for Lok Sabha / Rajya Sabha elections. Various recognized parties have given tickets to 287 candidates with cases related to crimes against women for state assemblies’ elections.

  • In the last 5 years, 18 independent candidates with declared cases related to crimes against women contested in the Lok Sabha/ Rajya Elections. Similarly, 100 independent candidates with declared cases related to crimes against women contested in the state assemblies’ elections.

  • Among the states, Maharashtra has the highest number of MPs/ MLAs i.e. 12, followed by West Bengal with 11 , Odisha and Andhra Pradesh each with 5 MPs/MLAs who have declared cases related crimes against women.

·    Among the states in the last 5 years, Maharashtra has the highest number of candidates i.e. 65, followed by Bihar with 62 and West Bengal with 52 candidates who were given tickets by political parties even though they have declared cases related to crimes against women in their affidavits.


·  Among various recognized parties, BJP has the highest number of MPs/ MLAs i.e. 12, followed by SHS (Shiv Sena) with 7 and AITC (All India Trinamool Congress) with 6 MPs/MLAs who have declared cases related crimes against women.


·  Among the major parties in the last 5 years, 47 candidates with declared cases related to crimes against women were given tickets by BJP. The second highest number of candidates, i.e. 35 who had declared cases related to crimes against women were given tickets by BSP, followed by 24 candidates from INC who had declared cases related to crimes against women who had contested for Lok/Rajya Sabha and State Assemblies Elections in last 5 years.


·  Following are 3 MLAs who have declared have declared cases related to rape :

  • Gonuguntla Suryanarayana from TDP who has won from Dharmavaram constituency in Andhra Pradesh (2014)
  • Jethabhai G.Ahir from BJP who has won from Shehra constituency in Gujarat (2017)
  • Gulab Yadav from RJD who has won from Jhanjharpur constituency in Bihar(2015)

·  In the last 5 years, recognized parties have given tickets to 26 candidates who had declared cases related to rape.

·  In the last 5 years, 14 independent candidates with declared cases related to rape have contested for Lok/Rajya Sabha and State assemblies’ elections.

Recommendations of ADR


All major political parties give tickets to candidates with cases of crimes against women especially rape and therefore hindering the safety and dignity of women as citizens. These are serious cases where charges have been framed and cognizance have been taken by the courts. Hence, political parties have been in a way abetting to circumstances that lead to such events that they so easily but vehemently condemn in Parliament’. ADR and NEW strongly recommends that:

·          Candidates with a serious criminal background should be debarred from contesting elections.

·          Political parties should disclose the criteria on which candidates are given tickets.

·          Cases against MPs and MLAs should be fast tracked and decided upon in a time bound manner.

Contact Details


National Election Watch/Association for Democratic Reforms


Media and Journalist Helpline


+91 80103 94248

Maj.Gen. Anil Verma (Retd)


National Election Watch,

Association for Democratic Reforms

011 4165 4200,

+91 88264 79910,


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