David Thouless, Duncan Haldane and Michael Kosterlitz for winning the 2016 Noble prize in Physics!
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016 was divided, one half awarded to David J. Thouless, the other half jointly to F. Duncan M. Haldane and J. Michael Kosterlitz “for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter”.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016 was awarded to Yoshinori Ohsumi “for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy”.
The 2016Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to Yoshinori Ohsumi for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy. Autophagy (“self-eating”) is an evolutionarily conserved process whereby the eukaryotic cell can recycle part of its own content by sequestering a portion of the cytoplasm in a double-membrane vesicle that is delivered to the lysosome for digestion. Unlike other cellular degradation machineries, autophagy removes long-lived proteins, large macro-molecular complexes and organelles that have become obsolete or damaged.