The education system in India, being influenced by British era and still continuing and damaging India and may be eye opener for education leaders. The data obtained from goggle. I am not claiming ownership and also not complete.
In the ancient times and before British era, Education was a matter of pride in India. As they say” F. W. Thomas was of the opinion that “Education is no exotic in India. There is no country where the love of learning had so early an origin or has exercised so lasting and powerful an influence” (Thomas, 1891, p. 1).”
Indian education had always been of a classical and spiritual rather of a practical nature. It was communicated through the sacred classical languages Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian (Ghosh, 1989, p.2). The Tols and Madrassas were the highest seminaries of learning meant for the specialists. For primary education, there were in the villages, Patsalas and smaller Gurus/teachers/ashrams etc.
During British era, till 19th Century, East India Company, established in 1600 A.D., did not evolve any definite educational policy. The ancient Indian education system prevailed. Then development of education system during the British period was determined by the needs of the colonial powers. The modern system of education came to be established in India during the British period at the cost of the traditional indigenous system. In his book, ‘Education in British India’ Arthur Howell says. “Education in India under the British Government was first ignored, then violently and successfully opposed, then conducted on a system now universally admitted to be erroneous and finally placed on its present footing” (1872:3).
Surprisingly in 1791 Jonathan Duncan opened a Bengal Sanskrit College at Benares for the cultivation of laws, literature and religion of the Hindus. Section 43 of the Charter Act 1813 had defined the objects of the educational policy, viz. ‘the revival and improvement of literature’, ‘the encouragement of learned natives of India’
Lord Macaulay, vide his Minute dated the 2nd of February, 1835 instituted an education policy in support of the British Raj which denigrated Indian languages and knowledge, established the hegemonic influence of English as medium of colonial ‘instruction’ (not education) and used the ploy of limitation of resources to “form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern – a class of persons Indian in blood and colour, but English in tastes, in opinions, in morals and in intellect …” (Chennai Declaration, 2012).
Lord William Bentinck (1828-1838) passed the Resolution on 7th March 1835 which was the first declaration of the British Government in the sphere of education in India. (Sharp, 1920:130-131): His Lordship in Council is of opinion that the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India; and that all the funds appropriated for the purpose of education would be best employed on English education alone.
Bentinck’s proclamation gave birth to the following results in Indian education:
• The aims of education in India were determined by the British.
• The promotion of Western arts and sciences was acknowledged as the avowed object.
• The medium of education would be English.
• This proclamation promised to supply Government with English educated Indian servants cheap but capable at the same time.
Lord Hardinge in 1844 proclaimed that for services in public offices, preference would be given to those who were educated in English schools. The emphasis was on producing good clerks (Kochhar, 1982:7). This proclamation gave rise to two new castes in a caste – ridden country – English –knowing caste and non English knowing mass of people.
Hindu college was set up in 1817, which later came to be called Presidency College in 1857.
BY and large we continue these education policy till date. WHO WILL HAVE TIME TO STUDY, RESEARCH AND REVISE?