Corona vaccines

Clinical trials are on way in China US France and in UK

France reportedly discovered vaccine and tablets to cure Corona Virus Pandemic

Worldwide efforts are on to find both medicines and vaccines for the COVID-19 pandemic. Different vaccine technologies are being used to try and find one that could stop the pandemic.

Vaccine candidates normally have to go through animal testing first before they go through the three phases of clinical trials in human beings. Among the 44 candidate vaccines that researchers are working on, only two are so far in Phase 1 clinical trials in humans.

The first vaccine to enter Phase 1 clinical trials, investigating safety and efficacy in humans is -the RNA vaccine developed by Moderna. The vaccine is being tested on volunteers at the Kaiser Health Research Institute in Seattle.

The other vaccine candidate currently in Phase 1 trials is Ad5-nCoV by Cansino Biologics Inc, based in Tianjin, China. The clinical trial on 108 subjects wiill take place at Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, where the COVID-19 pandemic began.

According to Global Alliance for Vaccines or GAVI, unlike the Moderna vaccine, this one has already been tested on animals. It has shown to be safe and triggers an immune response.

 Nearly two dozen companies and academic institutions are racing to create two dimensions of vaccine due to nature of Corona affects respiratory in two forms Sars – Cov-2 and Mer virus multi dimensional latently inert lethal virus at least four efforts of which already have candidates they have been testing in animals.

Scientists and researchers had already worked on two other coronaviruses before the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that caused many deaths in China in 2002-2003 and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) which spread in 2012. 

Both viruses have a strip of ribonucleic acid (RNA) inside a spherical protein capsule that is covered in spikes. 

The spikes allow the virus to lock onto the receptors of the human cells and enter them. It then destroys the reproducing ability of the cell and exits it, before killing the cell completely.

All vaccines have been produced in the same manner. Part of a pathogen is injected into the human body so that our immune systems produce anti-bodies to defend against the virus. 

The first of these produced by Boston-based biotech firm Moderna.

One company, Maryland-based Novavax, has now repurposed those vaccines for Sars-CoV-2, and says it has several candidates ready to enter human trials this spring. Moderna, built on earlier work on the Mers virus conducted at the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in Bethesda, Maryland.

How virus makes home in human is lethal to human body?

Sars-CoV-2 shares between 80% and 90% of its genetic material with the virus that caused Sars so found its name. Both consist of a strip of ribonucleic acid (RNA) inside a spherical protein capsule that is covered in spikes. The spikes lock on to receptors on the surface of cells lining the human lung the same type of receptor in both cases allowing the virus to break into the cell.

Pound inside, it hijacks the cell’s reproductive machinery to produce more copies of itself, before breaking out of the cell again and killing it in the process.

All vaccines work has same reaction to the same basic principle. Vaccines present part or all of the pathogen to the human immune system, mostly in the form of an injection with at a low dose, to prompt the system to produce antibodies to the pathogen. Antibodies are a kind of immune memory which, having been elicited once, can be quickly mobilised again if the person is exposed to the virus in its natural form.

Cepi’s original portfolio of four funded Covid-19 vaccine projects was heavily skewed towards these more innovative technologies, and last week it announced $4.4m (£3.4m) of partnership funding with Novavax and with a University of Oxford vectored vaccine project. “Our experience with vaccine development is that you can’t anticipate where you’re going to stumble,” says Hatchett, meaning that diversity is key. 

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